Thursday, September 18, 2008

Paid Vs Free to air channels: Please avoid Paid TV channels

(Being published as draft only, will be updated and finalised soon)
TV in India:
Television services were launched in India in September, 1959 at Delhi on experimental basis by All India Radio. Regular transmission was started in 1965 in Delhi and extended in Bombay and Amritsar in 1972. TV transmission wing was separated in 1976 and Doordarshan, the Indian National Broadcaster was established. TV transmission became coloured in 1982. Famous TV serials of Doordarshan are: 1. Hum Log (1984), 2. Buniyaad (1986-87), 3. Yeh Jo Hai Zindagi (1984), 4. Ramayan (1987-88), 5. Mahabharat (1989-90), 6. Karamchand, 7. Byomkesh Bakshi , 8. Dada Dadi ki Kahaniyan, 9. Vikram Betaal, 10. Chaanakya, 11. The Sword of Tipu Sultan etc. Besides this, Doordarshan also telecast many tele- ads, containing social messages like 1. Ek Chidiya, anek chidiya, 2. Mile Sur Mera Tumhara, 3. Baje Sargam etc.
Modes of transmission of TV channels:
There have been two modes being used in India for transmission/ telecast of TV channels. Brief description of those are as follows: 1. Terrestrial: This is the oldest mode of TV transmission in India on which Doordarshan started its transmission initially and currently also broadcasting its National channel covering almost 95% of whole country. In this system TV signals are transmitted through HPTs (High Power Transmitters) & LPTs (Low Power Transmitters) depending upon range of that area. Simple antennas are capable of receiving those signals. LPTs & HPTs do receive these signals through satellite but the viewer does not have to receive any signals from satellite, it does only catch those signals relayed by those HPTs & LPTs. In India, Doordarshan, the Indian National Broadcaster is having about 1400 transmitters established across the country. 2. Through satelitte: In this system, no transmitters are required to be set. TV signals are transmitted to the satellite and the cable operator receives directly from satellite and distributes it through Cable network. Now DTH (Direct To Home) has also been allowed in India in which the consumer itself receives the signals directly from satellite using a dish and decoder. This is also a type of satellite TV.
Comparison between Terrestrial & Satelitte TV system:
In both of these systems, Terrestrial TV broadcast is costlier as compared to Satellite TV broadcast. Terrestrial system requires i) more staff, ii) bigger set- up of network, iii) more maintenance. In latter system, no set- up of transmitters is required. Only a single TV studio-cum-transmitter set up is required to transmit TV signals to satellite.
Evolution of Satellite TV in India:
In early nineties, satellite TV was introduced in India and has now taken up the majority of viewers with them now since then. Initially, channels e.g.; Star, Zee were totally free but could only be received after having a big dish at your home roof or on hiring TV signals through a wire/ cable from a commercial signal provider known as Cable Operator.
Paid Vs Free to Air channels:
Later when these satellite TV channels succeeded in entering homes as well as hearts of common man of India, they started encryption of their channels. Encryption of signals is the phenomenon in which the TV signals are encoded in such a way that the cable operator can only decode them on paying a requisite amount depending on the number of consumers of that operator. These channels are now known as paid channels. These channels are now not only earning money through encryption of them but also earning through advertisements. Whereas there are some free to air channels too which have not encrypted their signals and can be viewed without paying directly to the channel tycoon. On intervention of Delhi High Court, some parts of four metro cities have been put to CAS (Conditional Access System), in which the cusumer does not pay for all channels being decoded by cable operator but pays only for those channels which he opts to view through a digital set top box. The channels were planning to fix per channel fees as per their strategies but thanks to God, the Government later put these TV channels under jurisdiction of TRAI (Telecom Regulatory Authority of India) which has reviewed the services of these channels and also restricted monthly charges to view a channel upto a maximum of Rs.5 only (Rs.2 for channel + Rs.2 for Multi system operator like Hathway + Rs.1 for local cable operator). It is also being considered to restrict the commercial air time for ads on a channel to be restricted to ten minutes per hour only and the channels would be forced to relay social messages too. So it should be our motto to: 1. Discourage these purely commercial channels by avoiding them, 2. Encourage Free to Air channels as they are not cutting our pockets in both ways, 3. Also encourage Doordarshan, the Indian National Broadcaster which does not only relay its all channels for free but also fulfils its duties towards nation and society.
This information may vary from actual. Compiler of the list does not bear any responsibility for the same. The same may be corrected by the reader itself. The information contained in this electronic message and any attachments to this message are intended for the exclusive use of the compiler only and may contain proprietary, confidential or privileged information. If you are not the intended recipient, you should not disseminate, distribute or copy this list. Please notify the publisher immediately and destroy all copies of this list and any attachments contained in it. Any such information(s), if hurting any person in any manner may be treated as false and deleted. Such occurence(s) are deeply regretted.

Wednesday, September 3, 2008

3G: What, how and when in India.


3G: What, how and when in India.

What: 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology. It superseeds 2G but preceds 4G. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving greater network capacity through improved spectral efficiency after acquiring more band width permission from Government or its agencies. Services include wide-area wireless voice telephony, video calls, and broadband wireless data transfer, all in a mobile environment. Additional features also include HSPA data transmission capabilities able to deliver speeds of upto 14.4Mbit/s on the downlink and 5.8Mbit/s on the uplink.
History:

i) In Japan branded FOMA: in May 2001 by NTT DoCoMo, first commercial launch of 3G was also by NTT DoCoMo in Japan on October 1, 2001.

ii) In Europe: in December 2001 first commercial network opened by Manx Telecom,

iii) In United States: in October 2003, first commercial 3G network was started by Monet Mobile Networks. It was also on CDMA2000 1x EV-DO.

iv) In Australia: in April 2003, by Hutchison Telecommunications..............................................................

More:

Launch of 3G networks was delayed in some countries by the higher costs of additional spectrum licensing fees. In many countries, 3G networks do not use the same radio frequencies as 2G or 2.5G (EDGE), so mobile operators must build entirely new networks and license entirely new frequencies; an exception is the United States where carriers operate 3G service in the same frequencies as other services. In India too, frequency allotment has not yet been done. By mid of 2007 the 200 millionth 3G subscriber had been connected. Out of 3 billion mobile phone subscriptions worldwide this is only 7% (approx.). In the countries where 3G was launched first - Japan and South Korea - over half of all subscribers use 3G. In Europe the leading country is Italy with a third of its subscribers migrated to 3G. Other leading countries by 3G migration include UK, Austria, Australia and Singapore at the 20% migration level.

EDGE (2.5G) Vs 3G:

Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE), Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS) is a technology that allows faster data transmission than traditional GSM networks. EDGE/EGPRS is implemented as a bolt-on enhancement for 2G and 2.5G GSM and GPRS networks, making it easier for existing GSM carriers to upgrade to it. EDGE is a enrichment to GPRS and can function on any network with GPRS deployed on it, provided the carrier implements the necessary upgrade.
Although EDGE does not require any hardware or software changes to be made in GSM core networks or base stations must be modified. EDGE compatible transceiver units must be installed and the base station subsystem needs to be upgraded to support EDGE. New mobile terminal hardware and software is also required to decode/ encode the new modulation and coding schemes and carry the higher user data rates to implement new services.

Edge is behind 3G but not too far away from it. In India too, some operators are providing EDGE networks. Fast data transfer like video streaming, accessing internet can be done using these networks. Only higher internet surfing and video calling etc. is not possible through EDGE. This network is available in major cities in India with major operators. Even Youtube videos can be viewed using EDGE network. Many internet users report an average downloading speed of upto 30Kbps using these networks.

How and When:

Like China, Indian Government has also announced its interest in alloting spectrum to telecom operators to provide 3G services in India too. Whereas till now no policy has been declared. It is believed that a 3G policy will be on table by October this year. After declaration of 3G policy, it will be the turn for allotment of 3G spectrum. Some international bidders also participate in it, it is planned. But the Government has assured public telecom operators MTNL & BSNL that will be given additional spectrum for 3G provided that they will pay license fees equal to that of highest bidder in auction. As per reliable sources, an established operator has planned to provide 3G network plan for Rs.1300 per month. It will be worth while we wait and watch for this another mobile revolution in terms of data transfer.


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Tuesday, September 2, 2008

Dr. Elattuvalapil Sreedharan- Managing Director, Delhi Metro

Dr. E. Sreedharan
डा. ई. श्रीधरन
ഡോക്ടര്‍ ഇ. ശ്രീധരന്‍
He was born on 12 June 1932 in Palakkad district, Kerala. He is an Indian technocrat, known for completing both the Konkan Railway and Delhi Metro projects within budget and ahead of schedule.



Starting of Life:



E. Sreedharan is from Karukaputhoor in Palaghat district of Kerala of India. His surname Ellatuvalapil belongs to the famous Tharavad in this part of Kerala. He had been a classmate of T. N. Seshan, the former Chief Election Commissioner of India in school. He later studied at the Victoria College in Palghat and then completed his Engineering from the Government Engineering College, Kakinada. After serving as a lecturer in Civil engineering at the Kerala Polytechnic in Kozhikode for a short period and a year at the Bombay Port Trust as an apprentice, he joined the Indian Engineering Service in Railways. This was through a nation-wide selection procedure and his first assignment was in the Southern Railway as an Assistant Engineer in December 1954.



As Government Official:



In 1963, when a tidal wave washed away Pamban bridge that connected Rameshwaram to Main Land. A target of six months was set to repair the bridge, Sreedharan was the boss, under whose jurisdiction the bridge came, reduced it to three months. Sreedharan was put in-charge of the execution and he restored the bridge in 46 days. The Railway minister's Award was given to him for it. In 1970, as the Deputy Chief Engineer, he was in- charge of planning, execution and design of Calcutta Metro, the first ever metro in India. Cochin Shipyard launched Rani Padmini, its first ship, when he was its Chairman- cum- Managing. He retired from Railways in 1990.



Remarkable Achievements:



Even after the retirement, the Government needed his services and he was appointed as CMD of Konkan Railway in 1990. Under him, the company executed its mandate in seven years. The project was unique in many respects. It was the first major project in India to be undertaken on a BOT (Build Operate Transfer) basis. The project had 93 tunnels along a length of 82 km and involved tunneling through soft soil. The total project covered 760 km and had over 150 bridges. He was made the managing director of Delhi Metro and by mid-2005, all the scheduled sections were completed by their target date or before and within their respective budgets. He was given the sobriquet of Metro Man by the media. In 2005, he was awarded the "Knight of the Legion of Honour" by the Government of France. He had announced that he would retire by the end of 2005, but his tenure has been extended by another three years to oversee the completion of the second phase of Delhi Metro.



Awards:



1. Railway Minister Award in 1963, 2. Padma Shri by the Government of India in 2001, 3. Man of the Year by The Times of India in 2002, 4. Shri Om Prakash Bhasin Award for professional excellence in engineering in 2002, 5. CII Juror's Award for leadership in infrastructure development in 2002-03, 6. One of Asia's Heroes by TIME in 2003, 7. AIMA (All India Management Association) award for Public Service Excellence in 2003, 8. Degree of Doctor of Science by IIT Delhi, 9. Bharat Shiromani award from the Shiromani Institute, Chandigarh in 2005, 10. Knight of the Legion of Honour by the Government of France in 2005, 11. CNN-IBN Indian Of the Year 2007: Public Service in 2008, 12. Padma Vibhushan by the Government of India in 2008.

Central Pay Scales in effect from 1986 (4th, 5th & 6th CPCs)



These figures may vary from actual. Compiler of the list does not bear any responsibility for the same. The same may be corrected by the reader itself. The information contained in this electronic message and any attachments to this message are intended for the exclusive use of the compiler only and may contain proprietary, confidential or privileged information. If you are not the intended recipient, you should not disseminate, distribute or copy this list. Please don't notify the sender immediately and destroy all copies of this list and any attachments contained in it. Any such information(s), if hurting any person in any manner may be treated as false and deleted. Such occurence(s) are deeply regretted.